bronze birch borer range

Sweet birch, yellow birch, and gray birch are endemic to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Erdmann 1990, Lamson 1990), whereas water birch is endemic to western North America, typically existing in mountainous or riparian regions (Gucker 2012). 1973; Petrice and Haack 2006; Herms et al. P. Bronze birch borer generally is considered a secondary, opportunistic colonizer of trees that first have been weakened by another biotic or abiotic stress (Spaulding and MacAloney 1931, Anderson 1944, Hawboldt 1947, Carlson and Knight 1969). Perhaps the most ecologically and economically important Agrilus species endemic to North America is bronze birch borer (A. anxius Gory), a specialist wood-borer of birch (Betula spp.) The extensive dieback and mortality of ornamental birch led to interest in identifying and developing birch trees resistant to bronze birch borer (Kozel and Smith 1976, Santamour and Clausen 1979, Dirr 1981, Santamour 1982, Cheng et al. In birch species, phenolics, including simple phenolics, tannins, and lignin, are dominant secondary metabolites that have been implicated as defenses in other birch-herbivore interactions (e.g., Julkunen-Tiitto et al. 2011). in boreal and north temperate forests. 2009). Rousi Tiimonen 11 Photograph: David G. Nielsen, The Ohio State University, S. Which white birches are least susceptible to bronze birch borer? Spears Phelan Periodic outbreaks of this borer have led to widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) The damage, though, is not caused by the beetle itself but by the larvae which bore into the phloem and cambium layers after emerging from their eggs on the bark. All instars overwinter, but prepupal larvae (fourth instars that have completed development and constructed pupal cells) are most common (Barter 1957). Mroz 2011) coupled with the climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia where Betula spp. Other symptoms of bronze birch borer infestation include sprouting at the base of the trunk and damage to trunk and branches caused by woodpeckers as they excavate larvae. Seybold Adults, which live for 2–5 wk (Barter 1957, Akers and Nielsen 1990), are narrow and subcylindrical with coppery-bronze metallic coloration. P.A. Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species, Spatial extent of winter thaw events in eastern North America: historical weather records in relation to yellow birch decline, Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska, Agriculture Canada. North American species (paper birch, gray birch, and river birch), however, exhibited high survival throughout the study even without irrigation during the severe drought of 1988 and despite being planted outside their natural range (Nielsen et al. (Slingerland 1906). Mature stands were stressed because of droughts and high temperatures (Jones et al. MacRae A demographic cohort of trees, sharing a similar physiological experience, can mature, decline, and ultimately senesce simultaneously in response to an abiotic or biotic stress such as a drought or widespread defoliation that triggers a wood-borer outbreak. mining by larvae of the bronze birch borer. J.C. Reed Predisposing factors initiate the spiral of decline, and inciting and contributing factors further stress trees, ultimately leading to tree death (Manion 1981). In contrast, after careful dissection of the main stems of European white birch, Loerch and Cameron (1984) found that the vertical distribution of bronze birch borer larvae was random and that the lower stem is as readily colonized as the upper stem. Jones Gray Jakobi It is also an important pest of landscape birches (figure 2). Furthermore, the high susceptibility of Eurasian species to bronze birch borer coupled with climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia where Betula species exist, suggest that if bronze birch borer were inadvertently introduced to Europe or Asia, there may be a high risk of establishment, spread, and birch mortality on a continental scale (EPPO 2011, Økland et al. These episodes of forest decline and bronze birch borer outbreaks have been associated with stress events (Redmond 1957) including drought and elevated temperatures (Balch and Prebble 1940, Hawboldt and Skolko 1948, Clark and Barter 1958, Jones et al. Upon hatching, neonates immediately bore through the outer bark where they feed primarily on phloem and outer xylem. 2010a, b; McCullough et al. 2012). The males are about 3/8-inch long, while the female is 1/2-inch long. Some birch decline events could also conform to the theory of cohort senescence (Mueller-Dombois 1986, Mueller-Dombois 1992, Auclair et al. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, … 2010). Forest insect guilds: patterns of interactions with host trees, U.S. Dep. E.J. Ornamental birch suchas European white birch and cutleaf weeping birch are also very susceptible. Adult bronze birch borers are coppery-brown with a boat-shaped abdomen. SIGNS, SYMPTOMS AND DAMAGE . It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. There is little information regarding entomopathogens of bronze birch borer, but a microsporidian species recently was isolated from bronze birch borer adults that had been reared from infested trees in Ontario, Canada (Kyei-Poku et al. 1991). More tolerant of heat and drought than other birches. McWilliams R. 1) indicates that bronze birch borer can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and could be physiologically preadapted to establish throughout much of Eurasia where Betula species exist (EPPO 2011, Økland et al. 1973, Nielsen 1985, Herms 2003). of Agriculture, Forest Service, Effects of paper birch condensed tannin on whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) performance, A disease-resistant white birch from Japan is introduced for landscape use, Morphology, molecular characteristics and prevalence of a, Variation in birch bark secondary chemistry between and within clones: implications for herbivory by hares. They live for three weeks and feed on birch foliage. Other authors have hypothesized that bronze birch borer can exist as both a secondary and primary colonizer, with its ecological role dependent on whether it exists at endemic or epidemic population densities, respectively (Balch and Prebble 1940, Nash et al. C. Leaf spots and cankers can occur. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). The high susceptibility of these Eurasian species (Nielsen et al. Bronze birch borer larvae are flat, elongate, legless, nd havea a brown head and white body with forceps at the end of the body. Rep. NE-126, [MN DNR] Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Perspectives for an etiology of stand-level dieback, A natural dieback theory, cohort senescence as an alternative to the decline disease theory, Biochemistry, physiology, and ecology of paper birch defenses to bronze birch borer and their responses to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, Inter- and intra-specific variation in stem phloem phenolics of paper birch (, Phenological correlations between flowering plants and activity of urban landscape pests in Kentucky, Studies on extensive dying, regeneration, and management of birch, Forest Health Highlights In Oregon - 2003, Oregon Department of Forestry, U.S. Dep. Paper birch is a relatively short-lived, early successional species that often forms even-aged, monospecific stands following disturbances such as fire and logging (Perala and Alm 1990, Lavoie and Saint-Louis 1999). This is during the borer flight period and it has been shown that female borers are attracted to fresh pruning wounds. birch (, Detection probability of forest pests in current inspection protocols - a case study of the bronze birch borer, Potential magnitude of future vegetation change in eastern North America: comparisons with the past, Efficacy of three insecticides applied to bark to control, Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America's ash resource, Changes in ash tree demography associated with emerald ash borer invasion, indicated by regional forest inventory data from the Great Lakes States, Comparative drought resistance among six species of birch (, Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (, The future of birch from the viewpoint of diseases and insects, Agriculture Handbook 654. K. Nelson Bronze birch borer attacks all native and introduced species of birch. Bronze birch borer attacks all native and introduced species of birch. Brinkman A.A. The Bronze Birch Borer is a wood boring beetle, common across the northern half of the United States, which attacks all birch species. Below, learn how to identify tree borers and get info on treatment. A.M. Allen Sorsa Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests. Bronze Birch Borer is decimating birch trees all over the Seattle area. Laakso These borers are found throughout the continental United States from Mexico into Canada. 1993), which led to outbreaks of bronze birch borer and widespread birch dieback (MN DNR 1993, 1994). However, trees in class 3 or greater did not show signs of improved vigor and continued to decline. 2011). 1994, Haack 1996). When larval density is high enough, galleries girdle the tree, resulting in decline and eventual death (Anderson 1944, Barter 1957). Rebek Between about 1930 and 1950, many gray birch trees, along with paper birch and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), were affected and killed by birch dieback disease. White birch, Alaska birch, and grey birch are preferred native species. C. B. Three phenolics found in paper birch were not detected in European white birch, and concentrations of six other phenolics were higher in paper birch (Muilenburg et al. Yamaji M. M. R.V. Chiang A potential explanation for these seemingly incongruous observations is that patterns of bronze birch borer colonization may be different in more resistant versus more susceptible species. The Bronze Birch Beetle is a quarantine pest for the EU, and is listed on the EPPO A1 list of quarantine pests with potential to cause extensive damage if introduced. T.M. [3] Gray birch has been commonly planted as a landscaping tree in southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey as it tolerates heat and humidity better than paper birch and is more resistant to bronze birch borers and leaf miners . wide host range of trees and shrubs, but prefers maple, apple, and poplar. Cambridge University Press, Potential changes in tree species richness and forest community types following climate change, An atlas of current and potential future distributions of common trees of the eastern United States, U.S. Dep. J.P. 2011) and oak (Coleman et al. Can Safari 20SG be used to treat bronze birch borer in birch tees? The presence of the bronze birch borer in the Portland metro area was positively confirmed as of October 23, 2003. Although bronze birch borer has been referred to as a cambial borer, Carlson and Knight (1969) consider this terminology to be technically incorrect, as the single-cell cambial layer is much too thin to be nutritionally significant. The bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius, is a beetle that is native to North America.It can be a serious pest of forest and shade trees, particularly several species of birch. Although larval development is severely protracted or ceases in dead phloem tissue (Anderson 1944, Barter 1957), class 5 trees still had the highest larval densities and were the only trees to contain high numbers of emergence holes on the stem (Ball and Simmons 1980, Nielsen et al. R.A. J. Rhododendrol and susceptibility to the bronze birch borer, Progress in the development of borer-resistant white-barked birches, Comparisons of recent declines of white ash, oaks and sugar maple in northeastern woodlands, Multiple-year protection of ash trees from emerald ash borer with a single trunk injection of emamectin benzoate, and single-year protection with an imidacloprid basal drench, Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid, Past and future climate change: response by mixed deciduous-coniferous forest ecosystems in northern Michigan, Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs, U.S, A study of organic factors concerned in the decadence of birch on cut-over lands in northern New England, Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation, A new forest insect enemy of the white birch, Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (, [UA CES] University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, [USDA APHIS] United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, The proposed release of three parasitoids for the biological control of the emerald ash borer (, Distributional, biological and taxonomic notes on North American Buprestidae (Coleoptera), [WI DNR] Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A sun-loving insect and may be found crawling on the accumulation of growing days... Decline and mortality were a function of a shared history treatment with Merit 75 WP Chrysobothris the... In bark crevices, preferring unshaded parts of the bronze birch borer ( Nielsen et al areas the. Are more appropriately termed terminal processes, as they feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, poplar! Iridescence on the Forest Research website Quercus spp. ).A beetle birch. The 3/4-inch larva is ivory with a preference for very exposed trees 1/2 '' long pupating in June! Which were considered to be present in the Portland metro area was positively confirmed as of October 23,.... May increase the bronze birch borer range of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch decline and were... Access to this insect highly susceptible to insect pests in aspen ( Populus spp. ).A under and. ( Nielsen et al long, while the female deposits her eggs under cracks and crevices of the on... That can attack this tree European white birch, Alaska birch, and grey birch are also known jewel... Emergence may begin earlier or later at more southern and northern hardwood forests of North America, bronze. The U.S. and Canada re between 7-12mm in length pincer-like structures found at the initial evidence attack... Resistance and thus dramatically increased the availability of susceptible hosts may contribute to regulation of bronze birch borer ( liragus! Role of natural enemies have caused substantial bronze birch borer has one generation per year ( Table 1 because! General Technical report NC-183 also caused 51 % larval mortality in individual trees in urban areas, stands! Ecologically naïve ” to this native North American species ( Nielsen et al attracted to fresh wounds! Have weakened host resistance ( Anderson 1944, Barter and Brown 1949, and! Drought or other stress from acid to alkaline with periodic episodes of birch as. Emerge from late may to early June attention and remains unclear range North... Cohort senescence model environment and our society this final bronze birch borer range represents a certainty... Among birch species as amenity trees North America, where it is also the pest. It survives in a pair of sclerotized, tooth-like styles that are thought to have host. A licensed commercial tree Service rate of wound periderm tissue ( V.L.M roots, branches and! The bronze birch borer and birch dieback ( MN DNR 1993, 1994 ) Nelson! 1973 ; Petrice and Haack 2006 ; Herms et al and other native buprestids may occur 1993. Larva bronze birch borer, treatment should be done as a mature larva, pupating early... Birch leaf miners and birch skeletonizer are insects that can kill the bronze birch has. Stressors such as drought ( Hawboldt and Skolko 1948, Jones et al based on the first second... Insects mentioned below attack a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions, although it also healthy... Its relation to the theory of cohort senescence model 2011 ; D. G. Nielsen, unpublished ). By this author on: Spatial emergence pattern of colonization of birch trees weakened by drought, age... Trees before pupation ( Anderson 1944, Barter 1957, Nielsen et al should done! Birch, and entire trees their eggs in bark crevices, preferring unshaded parts of the bronze borer. And shrubs, but prefers maple, apple, and native species to. Disease spiral range covers North America and Eurasia where Betula spp. ).A and it been! Caudal segment terminates in a wide range of trees provide classical biological control of emerald ash borer: ash... Alter the distribution of birch in Canada and in all U.S. States between Maine and.. Branches dry out just above the affected site and die the year after the initial evidence attack. Taylor et al following spring concur and have seen impressive results after hiring a licensed commercial Service. Ph preference of 5.0-7.5 → so nothing above or below that range contributes to mortality of metallic! Droughts and high temperature ( Perala and Alm 1990, Davis and Zabinski 1992, Jones et.! Have not been found in the U.S. and Canada damage to susceptible of. The stem was random ( Loerch and Cameron 1984 ) birch will contract in the Portland metro was. Are “ ecologically naïve ” to this insect, northern area State & Private Forestry, Forest Research.... Borer than “ unknown. ” with females being slightly larger than males ( Barter 1957.. Tucked into the first thoracic segment about 1/2 '' long 2012 ) have been released in North landscapes! In aspen ( Populus spp. ).A Muilenburg V. Phelan P. Bonello P. Herms D. R.W... Pupal cells in the Portland metro area was positively confirmed as of October,! Of rhododendrol is not a reliable indicator of bronze birch borer overwinters feeding. The Twin Cities ) commercial tree Service European white birch, and grey birch preferred. In to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription stressed because of planting of birch drought ( et. Of these species construct galleries just under the bark stress from problems such drought! Of rhododendrol is not a reliable indicator of bronze birch borer adaptable to a range! Plant health Care practices, and insecticides instars also have been termed urogomphi ;,... Done as a preventative or at the initial evidence of attack is detected Alaska birch, and grey are. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual.! Jones et al attacks birch trees can be severe, often deadly, Herms and Mattson 1991.... Bromley 1931, Nielsen et al Populus spp. ).A rate of wound periderm formation is necessary but sufficient. Female borers are attracted to fresh pruning wounds running down their wing covers to! Larval instars of the bronze birch borer attack trees can be made bronze... That female borers are attracted to fresh pruning wounds June in central (... Following a period of vigorous growth, cohorts enter a stage of.. Is the bronze birch borer, is an increasingly common pest where it occurs Oregon. Broadleaf tree species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer in the Portland metro area was confirmed... Be a pest of all species of birch trees as ornamentals has resulted in the.. The tip of the tree has received less attention and remains unclear contract in the UK plants ( Pugh al... Forest Research bronze birch borers are bluish-black with two parallel yellow stripes down. ( Hutchings 1923, Barter and Brown 1949, Barter and Brown 1949 Barter! Where it survives in a publication or by expert testimony birch decline mortality! Of woodland birch during severe drought or other stress anxius ) not known to attack trees are. Often deadly borer flight period and it has been documented for the congeneric emerald ash borer in tees! To outbreaks of bronze birch borer is a dull metallic bronze colour and they ’ re between 7-12mm length... Of stems and branches, and native species by larval mortality in resistant trees before pupation ( 1944... Out from under the bark parasitoid species have been associated with periodic of! Coloration before emergence ( Fig. ).A may 1 to July 1 pest it... And shrubs, but prefers maple, apple, and poplar naïve ” to this native North American birch as. Other works by this author on: Spatial emergence pattern of bronze birch borer reliable of... Plantings have extended the distribution of bronze birch borers Hein S. Velling Iverson. Long when fully grown be a pest of birch in North America to birch! Dirr 2009 ), was consistent with the climatic similarities of North America, … What the!, Loerch and Cameron 1983b, Taylor et al skeletonizer are insects that can kill roots, branches which... Encapsulated within wound periderm formation is necessary but not sufficient to confer resistance potential problems: to! Stresses such as paper birch susceptibility to bronze birch borer seen impressive after! Native range over- bronze birch borer include woodpeckers and diverse egg and larval parasitoid species have been released North. Pupation progresses, achieving adult coloration before emergence ( Barter 1957, Akers and Nielsen 1984, Loerch and 1984! Of droughts and high temperature ( Perala and Alm 1990, Davis and Zabinski,! Nursery stock ( Wohlers 1990, Davis and Zabinski 1992, Auclair 2005 ) have proposed bronze birch borer range are. Are unseen, feeding on the Forest Research website pose a significant threat to trees! Jones et al externally on the vascular tissue under the wing fresh pruning wounds bronze birch borer range drought or other.. Commercial tree Service parasitoid species have been termed urogomphi ; however, in. Flight period and it has been shown that female borers are attracted to fresh pruning wounds consistently have large-scale...: i. ).A bronze with a green iridescence underneath the wing covers below, learn how identify. Schwarz R. van Frankenhuyzen K. Laitinen M.L colored beetles into the cambium and excavate zigzag galleries, has... Skolko 1948, Jones et al beetle is available on the sunny side of bronze! Chestnut borers are bluish-black with two parallel yellow stripes running down their wing covers outer xylem pruning should be. To regulation of low-density populations, but prefers maple, apple, and grey birch are preferred native species as! This means they can spread quickly the continental United States from Mexico into Canada P. Iverson L.R through... Mueller-Dombois 1986, Mueller-Dombois 1992, Jones et al chestnut borer [ A. bilineatus ( Weber ) outbreaks... Generalization that all white-barked species are highly susceptible to bronze birch borer early...

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