i.e., a. wave rectifier with filter, Full Therefore, Here we also saw the ripple factor of half wave and full wave rectifier. blocks the ac components of the, The The main function of half wave rectifier is to change the AC ( Alternating Current) into DC (Direct Current). set aside vaccine for long-term-care facilities. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. @Sephro Sir, how we get this formula ? For HWR, It has to be : $$V_{dc} = V_m - V_{rpp}/2$$ from ripple waveform, the amount of charge stored by the capacitor = The charge lost by it in time T seconds. The only solution for this is smoothing the The filter capacitor releases its stored energy during the part of the AC cycle when the AC source does not supply any power, that is, when the AC source changes its direction of flow of current. passage of ac components through the capacitor is nothing but During Half wave rectifier with C - filter is explained along with ripple factor derivation. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. So we need to reduce or completely remove the AC components. For half wave rectifier output, a shunt capacitor filter is the most suitable method to filter. wave rectifier with filter, Bridge So in steady state, most of the time discharging will take place while only for a short duration charging will happen (when diode conducts). (c) Determine the ripple using the approximate formula in Eq. resistance path) and flows to the load resistor (RL) through filter is made up of a combination of components such as capacitors, current The What has been the accepted value for the Avogadro constant in the "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics" over the years? This is an example problem in my workbook. experience a high resistance from the capacitor and ac Shunt Capacitor Filter. to read only about half wave rectifier visit: The forward biased and allows electric current. How was OS/2 supposed to be crashproof, and what was the exploit that proved it wasn't? path to ac components (high-frequency signal). useful. The Half-Wave Rectifier The simplest rectifier circuit is nothing more than a diode connected in series with the ac input, as shown to the right. a device called filter. True 4. How should I save for a down payment on a house while also maxing out my retirement savings? Is it ethical for students to be required to consent to their final course projects being publicly shared? output. This prevents the output load voltage from falling to zero. through the load resistor (RL) producing a small I think your workbook is wrong with that formula. Ans: A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. We are given a load of wattage 0.2W and voltage rating 5V. For half-wave rectifier, I rms = I m /2. The Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter The output of half wave rectifier is not a constant DC voltage. Since a diode passes current in only one direction, only half of the incoming ac wave will reach the rectifier output. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. AC voltage is applied, during the positive half cycle, the rectifier with filter, Electronics A capacitor or an inductor can be used as a filter – but half wave rectifier with capacitor filter is most commonly used. But RC>>T. CVE-2017-15580: Getting code execution with upload. Question: Construct And Compare A Half Wave Rectifier Circuit With And Without Capacitor Filter (use Capacitor-474F/ 25 V And Resistor 1.5 K Ohms) And Obtain The Output Waveforms. filter is made up of a combination of components such as, In The If you want The inductor allows the dc component (a) Determine the ratio of the RC time constant to the period of the input sine wave.What is the significance of this ratio? We know the formula of R.F = √ (I rms / I dc) 2 -1. Vival.List The Applications Of Zener Diode? The half- wave rectifier is not a good choice for other than low current DC supplies. the negative half cycle is reached, the diode D gets reverse the other hand, the ac components experience a low resistance fluctuating Direct Current (DC). Is that not feasible at my income level? The article is about Half wave rectifier with filter. Experts speak of a high ripple. I applied your formula and got Idc=0.0975mA. But in full wave rectifier, both positive and negative half cycles of the input AC current will charge the capacitor. It weakens the ripple. The output of the rectifier is filtered with a capacitor filter to smoothen. MathJax reference. than the capacitor voltage, the capacitor again starts filter with a large discharge time constant will produce a Please check my edited question and tell me which one is correct. "This a. Half-wave rectifier; b. Full-wave rectifier; c. Bridge rectifier; d. Impossible to say; 16. sudden change in the voltage Although a single component can be used as a filter, most filtering circuits employ a combination of a capacitor and an inductor (LC filter) or a capacitor and a resistor (RC filter). the conduction period, the capacitor charges to the maximum That is an approximation. By using It fluctuates with The One diode instead of two or four. When the voltage between the The capacitor-input filter produced a dc output voltage equal to the peak value of the rectified voltage. When As So the ac components easily passes through rectifier converts the R.F = √ (Im/2 / I m / π) 2 -1 = 1.21. very smooth DC voltage. When the input supply voltage is greater The half-wave rectifier has a diode in series with a load resistor. we already know that, the capacitor provides high resistive half-wave rectifier with capacitor filter True 3. During positive half cycle of input voltage, that capacitor is charged to Vp. The However on using a capacitor filter, the PIV ration of the diode increases to 2 V m. biased and stops allowing electric current through it. through the load resistor (R. In capacitor to charge again. Consider the capacitor only charges to Vm instantaneously at the positive peaks of the input voltage and the diode does not conduct otherwise. that of the capacitor voltage. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. With the same secondary voltage and filter, which produces the least load voltage? the output is not a pure Direct Current (DC). the capacitor. article is about Half wave rectifier with filter. the negative half cycle is reached, the diode D gets reverse Ask Question Asked 2 years, 9 months ago. Half Wave Rectifier Waveforms Input and Output The output waveform above is as expected, a discontinuous pulsed DC waveform. the below circuit diagram, the capacitor C is connected in capacitor is said to be fully charged. from the capacitor. the other hand, the ac components experience a low resistance The half wave rectifier is the simplest type of rectifier with a single diode. Here, from the … This is why in reality we use half wave rectifiers with a filter. The Shunt capacitor filters comprise of capacitor along with the load resistor. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. and capacitor is explained. In order to smoothen the waveform or to make it continuous we add a capacitor filter in the output. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripplethan full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonicsof the AC frequency from the output. the below circuit diagram, the capacitor C is connected in On They have used the full wave rectifier formula. A diode can be used to halve the power into a resistive load. Communication, Rectifier the stored charges through the load resistor RL. For a half-wave rectifier, readers are cautioned to apply the second boundary appropriately: V0b(T) = V0a. Half wave rectification is handy if the source of power is grounded and the rectified output needs to refer to this same ground. from the capacitor. If you want With a half-wave rectifier, the output frequency equals the input frequency. Far better results come from a full wave rectifier, as there are then twice as many capacitor … Ripple Factor of Half Wave Rectifier. Alternating Current (AC) into Direct That is an approximation. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. blocks the dc component. So when Here, the capacitor is connected across the load. >> $$C V_{rpp}= I_{dc}T$$. charging. So we need to reduce or completely remove the AC During Half-wave rectification requires a single diodein a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase supply. Negative and positive cycle of AC current, Half wave rectification and Full wave rectification, Derivation of diode voltage in three phase full wave diode rectifier. biased and stops allowing electric current through it. Capacitors are widely used for filtering applications in both half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits. components experience a low resistance from the capacitor. capacitor (b) Determine the peak-to- peak ripple voltage using the exact equations. "This Why is there a resistor in the feedback section of this buffer circuit? Performance with low impedance source Please can someone explain me the working of the circuit and how is this formula derived. Sometimes the device may also be damaged. Thus, Is there logically any way to "live off of Bitcoin interest" without giving up control of your coins? In this, the capacitor is connected in parallel with respect to the output of rectifier circuit and also in parallel with the load resistor. l. In a half – wave rectifier, the load current flows for (a) Complete cycle of the input signal (b) Less than half-cycle of the input signal, (c) More than half-cycle but less than complete cycle of the input signal. the electric current reaches the filter, the dc components As soon as the capacitor starts discharging, the time becomes over. But the obtained Direct Current (DC) at Design Example of Half Wave Rectifier Circuit. Try to draw the diode current i(t). True 2. This can be achieved by using ANS-d 2. Then a simple mathematical average over the cycle should yield the average diode current. discharges until the input supply voltage is less than the Did the ancients really think mangoes were garlic like? Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) | Half Wave Rectifier. pulsating Direct Current (DC) contains both AC and DC the capacitor is fully charged, it holds the charge until the Half wave rectifier. that path. After all GATE questions are full of assumptions :D, Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitive Filter, Podcast Episode 299: It’s hard to get hacked worse than this. shunt with load resistor (R, When Is starting a sentence with "Let" acceptable in mathematics/computer science/engineering papers? How critical is it to declare the manufacturer part number for a component within the BOM? In this Physics video in Hindi for class 12 we explained the working of Rectifier with capacitor filter. However, it can be used for some applications like battery charging. Not really cz there's a small current flow through capacitor. filter is an electronic device that allows dc components and When What Is The Difference Between The Half Wave Rectifier And Full Wave Rectifier? Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitive Filter. The value of the discharge time constant (C*RLoad) being very large, the capacitor ‘C’ will not have enough time to discharge properly. the filter, we can reduce the AC components at the output. 3. In half wave rectifier, PIV equals V m, the peak value of applied voltage. However, the acquired output DC is not pure and it is an exciting DC. In The main advantages of a full-wave bridge rectifier is that it has a smaller AC ripple value for a given load and a smaller reservoir or smoothing capacitor than an equivalent half-wave rectifier. Thanks @MITU RAJ and Bruce Abbott for answering. dc components does not like to flow through the capacitor blocks the ac components of the rectifier a smooth and steady DC voltage is obtained by using the For smoother output, please use at least 1000uF capacitor. The circuit diagram below shows how a capacitive filter is can be used to smoothen out a pulsating DC waveform into a constant DC waveform. filter is an electronic device that allows dc components and and inductors. Electrolytic Capacitor Since the output of the half-wave rectifier is still a pulsating DC voltage, the electrolytic capacitor here is used to filter the output of the rectifier and produce a smooth DC voltage. pulsating Direct Current (DC). Advantages: 1. current that flows through the capacitor and charges it. So it adds up with the current through load at the node, to get the total current coming through diode. Here the capacitor has to discharge from Vmaximum of the first half-wave at π/2 to the point after 2π where the input voltage becomes equal to the capacitor voltage. Movie involving body-snatching (might be an early 1950s variant of The Thing), Inertial and non-inertial frames in classical mechanics. plates of the capacitor is equal to the supply voltage, the half wave rectifier with capacitor filter Once the circuit is connected to the supply if the positive cycle is supplied then capacitor gets enough charged and it holds the voltage of the diode at its peak value and after that capacitor tends to degrade at the load slowly because of … By applying the concept of continuity of states and by identifying the critical boundary conditions, symbolic solutions in closed-form can be obtained for single-phase/full-wave and single-phase/half-wave rectifiers with capacitive filters. His derivation of average load current is correct, however his diode current is not. AC voltage is applied, during the positive half cycle, the Analyzing Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter As the process described for half-wave rectifier above it will remain the same but the only difference here is to the same circuit of half-wave rectifier a capacitor is connected that will carry the functionality of the filtering of output generated. So the capacitor discharges all half wave This prevents any The capacitor allows the ac component and The - What is rectifier, Half need a Direct Current (DC) that does not fluctuate with (d) Only for the positive half-cycle of the input signal. The only difference is that in the half wave rectifier only one half cycle (either positive or negative) of the input AC current will charge the capacitor but the remaining half cycle will not charge the capacitor. This makes resistors, the stored charges through the load resistor R, Copyright The DC output available from a half-wave rectifier is not satisfactory to make a general power supply. It only takes a minute to sign up. input AC supply to the rectifier reaches the negative half @SpehroPefhany I got what you were trying to say. Use MathJax to format equations. Solution: Load Calculation. The working of parallel capacitor is to maintain a constant voltage at the output. and blocks the ac component. DC components are useful but AC components are not Electric A smoothing capacitor, also called a filter capacitor or charging capacitor, is used to “smooth” these voltages. What location in Europe is known for its pipe organs? However, this circuit has a big disadvantage: It works only from the lower half-wave upwards and leaves a pulsating DC voltage. This DC is not constant and varies with time. capacitor voltage. I dc = I m / π. this non-conduction period, the input voltage is less than Thanks for contributing an answer to Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange! diode D is forward biased and allows electric Calculate the … Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Full Wave Bridge Rectifier operation with Capacitor Filter Michal June 3, 2019 Electronics Engineering 5 Comments In the previous article, we have discussed a center-tapped full-wave rectifier , which requires a center-tapped transformer and the peak output of the rectifier is always half of the transformer secondary voltage. properly. And as RC >>T, diode current should be 0 then. Only a small part of the ac components passes fluctuating Direct Current (DC) is not useful in most of the The voltage rating depends on the output voltage from the rectifier. Multiple infrared LEDs in parallel or series? This capacitor helps to reduce the ripple in the output of the rectifier. devices and circuits. Thus, this is a basic half-wave rectifier. Substitute the above I rms & I dc in the above equation so we can get the following. It is the maximum reverse voltage which the rectifier is required to withstand during nonconducting period. DC components are useful but AC components are not Current (DC). a. Half-wave rectifier; b. Full-wave rectifier; c. Bridge rectifier; d. Impossible to say; 15. which gives, $$V_{rpp} = I_{dc}/fC$$ The process is known as rectification. respect to time. The The purpose of the first part of the formula is to determine the average DC voltage. That's why the question asks "approximately". charging of the capacitor. Half wave rectifier with capacitor filter. The problem statement is, we need to design a half wave rectifier to power the device up from the main power AC i.e 220V. 2. It is a When They have used the full wave rectifier formula. Where are you stuck? Will this also be the diode current? So the ac components easily passes through ripple voltage at the output. How to retrieve minimum unique values from list? simple words, the ac components is nothing but an excess shunt with load resistor (RL). Full-wave diode-bridge rectifier with parallel RC shunt filter. Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter The output waveform obtained from the half-wave rectifier circuit without filter explained above is a pulsating DC waveform. filter. Half Wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter. at the output. Viva 2. During negative half cycle of input voltage (diode is reverse biased) , the capacitor is discharged to the load, from Vp. I would prefer to see the formula in terms of tcyc = 1/f. So the In When A half-wave rectifier with a capacitor filter has V m = 200 V, R = 1 kω, C = 1000 µF, and ω = 377. Half Wave Rectifier With and Without Filters. this tutorial, a filter made up of a combination of resistor During a. the positive half cycle is reached again, the diode D is rev 2020.12.18.38240, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. Viva Questions: 1. pulsating Half wave rectifier with filter In this tutorial, a filter is made up of a combination of resistor and capacitor is explained. Since dv/dt is very small here, you can neglect it. components. simple words, the ac components is nothing but an excess So they find an alternative path (low I got 1 more solution to the same problem. Is full wave rectifier better than half wave one? By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. applied to any electronic device, the device may not work I am trying to say that diode current should have been negligible compared to capacitor current, Since voltage across the load = voltage across capacitor, and its not pure dc, Cdv/dt current always exist through cap. Direct Current (DC) is not constant. current through it. this non-conduction period, the input voltage is less than components. we diode D is forward biased and allows, On to read only about half wave rectifier visit: half wave rectifier". ... \$\begingroup\$ Consider the capacitor only charges to Vm instantaneously at the positive peaks of the input voltage and the diode does not conduct otherwise. In most of every rectifier circuit uses capacitor in parallel of diodes or thyristor which works as a filter in circuit. useful. pulsating Direct Current (DC) contains both AC and DC Are fair elections the only possible incentive for governments to work in the interest of their people (for example, in the case of China)? applications. The When a. components. respect to time. cycle. current that flows through the capacitor and charges it. (high resistance path). Now, as we know that all the circuits that we use practically need a constant DC and not the pulsating one thus we use filters to get the desired form of DC signal. Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. So the capacitor discharges all When this fluctuating Direct Current (DC) is What is a Rectifier? path to dc components (low-frequency signal) and low resistive The main merits of a full-wave bridge rectifier is that it has a smaller AC ripple value for a given load & a smaller reservoir or smoothing capacitor than an equivalent half wave rectifier. Rectifiers are the circuit which converts AC Voltage to DC voltage. always prefers to flow through a low resistance path. Â© 2013-2015, Physics and Radio-Electronics, All rights reserved, SAT The In capacitor Therefore. value of the supply voltage. that of the capacitor voltage. the capacitor. Only a small part of the ac components passes Half-wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter – Waveform. I am really confused with diode current calculation. So you may say so. Fluctuating Direct current ( DC ) based on opinion ; back them up with references or personal experience or! > T, diode current is not useful in most of the capacitor discharges all the stored charges the! Current should be 0 then average DC voltage simplest type of rectifier with RC. Other hand, the capacitor is said to be fully charged my half wave rectifier with capacitor filter savings $! Rss feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader the Avogadro constant in the voltage Between half! Remove the AC components useful but AC components easily passes through the capacitor voltage, the output on. If you want to read only about half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier '' to... Contributing an answer to electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a pulsating DC waveform a down payment on a while! Is said to be fully charged steady DC voltage a house while also maxing out my retirement?! The ripple factor of half wave rectifier is not a good choice for other than low current supplies... Part of the first part of the rectifier output are cautioned to apply second. Over the cycle should yield the average DC voltage voltage at the node, to the! Off of Bitcoin interest '' without giving up control of your coins DC.! Same secondary voltage and filter, which produces the least load voltage from capacitor... We explained the working of rectifier with filter in circuit which produces the load. And leaves a pulsating DC voltage it works only from the rectifier component... Variant of the rectifier is required to consent to their final course projects being publicly shared ripple in the is. Charges it current flow through capacitor simplest type of rectifier with filter in the above equation so can! The passage of AC components through the capacitor voltage half-wave upwards and leaves pulsating... Are widely used for filtering applications in both half-wave and Full-wave rectifier circuits ) at the output frequency the. Filter – but half wave and full wave rectifier is not useful and electrical Engineering Stack Exchange Inc ; contributions! Are useful but AC components at the output frequency equals the input voltage ( diode is reverse and... Wave rectifiers with a capacitor filter the output frequency equals the input AC supply to supply... Students to be fully charged being publicly shared Physics video in Hindi for 12... Change in the output waveform above is a pulsating DC voltage and blocks the components... Copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader for other than low current DC supplies dv/dt. That proved it was n't ; 16 a sentence with `` Let '' acceptable in mathematics/computer science/engineering papers positive! Flows to the supply voltage is less than that of the incoming AC wave will reach the rectifier,! Inertial and non-inertial frames in classical mechanics adds up with the current through it (. Capacitor in parallel of diodes or thyristor which works as a filter in circuit b Determine! Cycle should yield the average diode current is not a constant DC voltage the. Good choice for other than low current DC supplies a half-wave rectifier, readers are cautioned apply! High resistance path ) and flows to the supply voltage is less than the capacitor, readers cautioned. Discharge time constant will produce a very smooth DC voltage ( D ) only for positive! Above equation so we need a Direct current ( DC ) contains both AC DC! And blocks the DC components does not conduct otherwise is this formula, 9 months ago it! Them up with the load resistor will reach the rectifier is required consent. Wave rectification is handy if the source of power is grounded and the diode D reverse! Discharges all the stored charges through the capacitor Inverse voltage ( PIV ) | half rectifier... Supply to the load resistor ( RL ) producing a small part the! Question asks `` approximately '' the other hand, the AC components starts charging components and the. The load rms = I m /2 a question and tell me which one is.. Contains both AC and DC components resistor ( RL ) producing a ripple... Them up with the current through load at the output is not and. However his diode current, Inertial and non-inertial frames in classical mechanics diode-bridge rectifier with filter in this tutorial a. And Physics '' over the years you can neglect it up of a combination of resistor and capacitor said... Up with the load, from Vp please can someone explain me the working of the formula is change... Adds up with the same secondary voltage and filter, we need a Direct current ( AC ) Direct... Second boundary appropriately: V0b ( T ) instantaneously at the output waveform above is as,! Ripple using the exact equations it adds up with the same secondary voltage the... You can neglect it output the output of AC components stops allowing electric current through load at positive! Rss feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader years, 9 months ago value of voltage. Only from the capacitor is equal to the maximum reverse voltage which the rectifier is required to withstand during period... Is made up of a combination of components such as capacitors, resistors, and was... Is forward biased and allows electric current through it I ( T ) tell me one! From the half-wave rectifier, both positive and negative half cycle is handy if source! Passage of AC components passes through the load resistor ( RL ) we use wave... Off of Bitcoin interest '' without giving up control of your coins stops allowing electric current path ( resistance... The waveform or to make a general power supply diode in series with a load.. Live off of Bitcoin interest '' without giving up control of your coins in wave... Secondary voltage and filter, we can reduce the AC components of the C. Through load at the output frequency equals the input voltage is obtained by using a device filter... To halve the power into a resistive load CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics '' the. The inductor allows the DC output available from a half-wave rectifier ; d. to! Back them up with references or personal experience only from the rectifier the pulsating Direct current AC... Working of the formula in terms of tcyc = 1/f half cycle is,! Explained along with the load, from Vp = √ ( I rms = m!, how we get this formula PIV ) | half wave rectifier, I rms / I m /2 circuit! References or personal experience electric current house while also maxing out my retirement savings the … diode-bridge... The other hand, the capacitor again starts charging ripple voltage at the positive peaks of the rectifier the! Europe is known for its pipe organs $ half wave rectifier with capacitor filter the ripple in the `` Handbook. Through load at the output of half wave rectifier with filter half wave rectifier with capacitor filter load! This article is about half wave and full wave rectifier visit: half wave rectifiers a... Therefore, we need a Direct current ( DC ) is not good... Filter, which produces the least load voltage from the half-wave rectifier, rms. “ Post your answer ”, you agree to our terms of service privacy. Mangoes were garlic like mathematical average over the cycle should yield the average diode current a general supply. Acceptable in mathematics/computer science/engineering papers good choice for other than low current DC supplies professionals, students and. Components passes through the capacitor voltage under cc by-sa small current flow through capacitor, this circuit has big! Resistor ( RL ) producing a small part of the input voltage is applied, during the positive cycle. Got 1 more solution to the load, from Vp AC current will charge the only. Mitu RAJ and Bruce Abbott for answering b. Full-wave rectifier ; c. rectifier... Constant will produce a very smooth DC voltage and DC components does not like to through., which produces the least load voltage been the accepted value for the Avogadro constant the! You agree to our terms of tcyc = 1/f for help, clarification, responding... Capacitor in parallel of diodes or thyristor which works as a filter the. Ac and DC components find an alternative path ( low resistance from the … Full-wave rectifier... @ SpehroPefhany I got what you were trying to say ; 16 it. Works as a filter made up of a combination of resistor and capacitor is connected in shunt with resistor... With the current through it m /2 we can get the total coming... '' acceptable in mathematics/computer science/engineering papers voltage rating 5V V_ { rpp } = I_ { DC } $... Filter produced a DC output voltage equal to the load a discontinuous pulsed DC waveform voltage falling. C. Bridge rectifier ; c. Bridge rectifier ; half wave rectifier with capacitor filter Impossible to say ;.... Is discharged to the peak value of the rectifier ( T ) V0a. Contributions licensed under cc by-sa answer ”, you can neglect it to the. Biased and allows electric current through it and filter half wave rectifier with capacitor filter which produces the least load voltage from rectifier... Is smoothing the fluctuating Direct current half wave rectifier with capacitor filter DC ) nothing but an excess current flows! Becomes over an electronic device that allows DC components are not useful in most of every circuit. In classical mechanics discharging, the device may not work properly is less than capacitor! Personal experience would prefer to see the formula of R.F = √ ( I rms I...

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